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How do I... prepare a bibliography

A bibliography is an ordered list of the works consulted in the process of writing a paper, such as a term paper or the final thesis.

The bibliography provides essential information on the works consulted (books, articles, online resources), information that is needed in order to identify and find them.

The following online guide is recommended:

Please remember to note the bibliographic information of the books and periodicals that you make photocopies of!

From Summon discovery, through the "Cite this item" tool, you can create citations using different International Standard formats. Watch the Tutorial (in Italian with English subtitles) to find out more (login through the Luiss account).

Reference Management Systems

BMS (Bibliography Management Systems) or RMS (Reference Management Systems) are specialized tools that help with storing and organizing bibliographic citations to create and manage bibliographies according with the most popular and accepted styles.

Most of these tools are compatible with the main operating platforms (Windows, above all, but also MAC OS, Linus, Unix, etc.). The output of the collected data is usually in rtf, doc, txt, html, xml, odt files, etc. Among the free software are Endnote basic, Mendeley and Zotero.

Endnote basic

Endnote basic is the free version of Clarivate Web of Science Endnote system for managing bibliographic references.

Once landed on the Web of science (database also accessible remotely), the program is accessible from the Tools menu in the top bar. The collection of references can be created with a simple link from Web of science or through the proper plug-in for capturing metadata from web pages. Online registration is required, which allows you to download the plug-in integration for Office Word to add citations to the text and compile bibliographies.

For further information visit the online guide.

YouTube Tutorial:


Mendeley is a program provided by Elsevier for the management of bibliographic references also for sharing contents as a social network for academic environments. Online registration and software download are required to access. The system allows to import documents or folders of documents in pdf and to extract their bibliographic references.

The tool is also integrated into Scopus (database accessible even remotely) that contains abstracts and citations from scientific literature and authoritative web, scientific-technological, and human and social sciences sources. 

Luiss users with an institutional account can register on the platform directly by clicking on "Create account" and then on "you can access through your institution" by entering the Luiss e-mail or the name of the University.

For further information visit the online guide.

YouTube Tutorial:


Zotero is an open source system specialized in capturing bibliographic references from documents discovered on the web. Online registration and software download are required to access.

For further information visit the online guide.

YouTube Tutorial: